Nematodes (known as roundworms) are one of the most common parasites that affect fish. They can cause a wide range of diseases and be dangerous to fish.
Nematodes can infect both saltwater fish and freshwater fish, which can be difficult to treat. Nematodes, or roundworms, infect many kinds of farmed and wild fish.
More than 90% of various types of wild-caught fish were infected with nematode larvae. Marine fish also become infected by nematode worms.
The article guides you on roundworms in fish and their biology, causes, symptoms during infection, and treatment.
What do Roundworms in Fish Look Like
Roundworms in fish can be found in the stomach, intestines, gonads, and other organs. They are typically small but can reach up to 2 inches in length.
They have a head, neck, and body. The head is typically shaped like a cigar and has eyes on either side.
They have a long neck that they use to suck up food.
The worms are white or cream-colored, and their size and shape vary depending on the type of fish they are found in.
They are usually small, but they can get quite large. Worms in fish have a body feature that makes them different from other worms.
Roundworms in Fish
Frequent dispersal of several nematode species may produce significant damage to the fish. Large larval stages of some nematode species, such as Eustrongylides species, may bring about the physical strain on organs and abdominal distension in fish.
Juvenile fish with nematode injuries may be much more impacted than grown-ups, exhibiting decreased development, degeneration, or more obvious signs.
Capillaries as a group can infect a variety of fish hosts.
Capillaria pterophyllis is one of the more common nematodes in fish intestines (angelfish and discus). Capillaria species are also seen in cyprinids, gouramis, tetras, and other fish species. Camallanus species infect the gastrointestinal tract of fish.
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Roundworms in Salmon
Roundworms are parasites that can infect salmon. Infection with roundworms can cause health problems for the salmon and lead to death.
Roundworms can also reduce the fitness of salmonids, making them less likely to survive in the wild.
There are several ways to prevent roundworm infections in salmon, and farmers and ranchers can use some of these methods to control worm populations on their farms.
Roundworm in Aquarium
Roundworms are a type of worm that can be found in both fresh and saltwater aquariums. These small creatures are often considered harmless, but they can cause problems if they are not properly controlled.
If you have a roundworm in your aquarium, it is important to remove it as soon as possible. Roundworms attach themselves to fish and other marine creatures and can cause them serious health problems.
What are Anisakid Roundworms
Anisakid roundworms are parasitic flatworms that can be found in both freshwater and marine environments. These worms spend their entire life cycle within the digestive system of a different animal, where they develop into mature adults.
Anisakid roundworms can be found in all parts of the world, but are most commonly found in warm climates. They are capable of causing significant damage to livestock, as well as human beings, through their ability to infect various organs.
Anisakid roundworms are a type of worm that can be found in various environments throughout the world, including freshwater, soil, and even in the stomachs of some animals.
They are small (usually less than 1/4 inch long), white or grayish-white in color, and have a smooth, elongated body. In spite of their name, anisakids don’t have any teeth; their mouth is located near the tip of their body.
These worms eat organic material such as decaying vegetation or animal feces. Adult anisakis worms live for about two months but can reproduce several times a year.
Anisakid roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides) are parasites that can infect humans. They are zoonotic, meaning that they can be transmitted from animals to humans. Humans can become infected by ingesting the parasite, through contact with contaminated soil or water, or by breathing in dust containing the parasite.
The parasites can cause serious infections in humans, including gastroenteritis, anemia, and chronic liver disease. There is currently no vaccine or cure for anisakid roundworms infection. The best way to prevent infection is to avoid contact with worms and their larvae and to keep your environment clean.
Life Cycle of Roundworms
There are final hosts, intermediate hosts, and direct hosts to nematodes. Final hosts are those organisms on which an organism depends to complete its life cycle.
An intermediate host is an organism on which the ultimate host of nematodes depends. There is one major kind of nematode life cycle: direct. Suppose the definitive or final host is the fish.
In that case, the nematode will enter one other organism, such as an aquatic invertebrate such as a copepod, a side swimmer (such as Gammarus spp.), a tubifex worm, or an insect larva. Then it will be eaten by a fish that is the proper species. Some nematode species reach sexual maturity after being eaten by the fish.
A nematode whose life cycle involves an indirect type of intermediate host and a subsequent host (which contains the reproductive adult stage of the nematode) is a phlegmaphroid (fish-eating) fish, bird, or mammal.
Some nematodes can and do survive in “alternative” hosts, known as “paratenic” hosts. These parasites do not need them to complete their life cycle.
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Signs and Symptoms of Nematode Infection
Hemorrhaging, lesions (external lumps and nodules), inflammation, and necrosis (preferential presence of dead and dying tissue) followed by cysts or granulomas may be visible signs of infection.
Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, abdominal distention, diarrhea, blood and mucus in stool, and mild fever.
Other symptoms include abdominal pain, weight loss, etc. Granulomas arising around such foreign bodies may appear as small, brown “ball-like” regions.
Adult nematodes in the intestinal tract cause its lining to become damaged, hindering the transfer of nutrients. In turn, this results in “wasting” from parasites.
The size of infection in fish will depend on the life stage, animal species, type of nematode; the age of the animal and type of infection; and the sites of infection.
How to Get Rid of Roundworms in Fish Tank
An expert in fish health should be consulted before any deworming medication is administered (anthelmintic). Fenbendazole and levamisole are two effective and commonly used chemical treatments.
Use fenbendazole only as a feed additive at a rate not to exceed 1.14 grams per pound of food fed for three days, repeat treatment in two to three weeks. Use levamisole both as a feed and a bath treatment.
A common oral dose is 1.8 grams of levamisole per pound of food fed weekly for three weeks. A common bath treatment dose is two ppm (taking gram liter) levamisole for 24 hours, with a repeat treatment in two or three weeks.
In reality, surgical removal is the only way fish infested with internal worms can be fully cured. Fish with larvae that inhabit their muscles or external regions can be treated through the surgical removal of these larvae.
This technique cannot adequately be applied in aquaculture production, and it can also cause scarring and infection. In most cases, affected fish must be anesthetized
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Prevention of Nematode Infections
It is most difficult to eradicate infective larvae from the infected fish. Prevention is always the best choice, especially against those species of nematode that infect areas other than the gastrointestinal tracts of fish.
Ponds that are not properly cleaned or sterilized before restocking are at greater risk of harboring large numbers of intermediate hosts (e.g., tubifex worms).
Cleaning and sterilizing ponds is an effective way of reducing nematode infection. Periodic inspections of certain individuals or broodstock (by regular fecal examinations and necropsies of a few species of fish) and reducing the community of intermediate hosts, including fish-eating birds and tubifex worms, are some of the techniques included in preventive medicine.
Infected fish needs to be separated from the healthy fish tank.
If stock is examined for the potential presence of parasites, it will assist in determining carriers.
In conclusion, roundworms can be a major health concern in fish. It is important to keep an eye out for these parasites and take appropriate steps to treat them if they are detected. If you see any roundworms in your fish, please get in touch with your local fishmonger for advice on treating them.
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